Low head Turbine
The all-weather PowerSpout LH is one of the most reliable, cost-effective generators around.
Medium Head Turbine
The Turgo turbine is an impulse water turbine designed for medium head applications.
High Head Turbine
The Pelton wheel is an impulse type water turbine designed for high head applications.
Medium - Large Scale Turbines
Various configurations can be compiled for large scale Hydro Power generation.
Even a small stream can generate consistent, clean, dam free, renewable electricity at a price per Watt lower than solar or wind.
ZMSA uses various turbines for different conditions to generate power. The distinguishing elements are referred to as Low, Medium and High Head. The generation capacity of your site is determined by the water supply, primarily by the vertical distance the water falls (head) and how much water flows in a given time (flow rate).
You will have to measure the head (meters) and flow (litres/second.)
In the case of the LH turbines, the propeller turbine is normally near to the surface in an elevated flume. You can measure the head from the intake surface level down to the water surface in the tailrace below.
For the Pelton and Turgo turbines the head is measured between intake water level and the turbine jets below. Water exits the turbine at atmospheric pressure back into the stream.
A rough estimate of generation potential can be calculated as follows:
Generation (Watts) = head (metres) x flow (litres per second) x gravity (9.81) x Turbine Efficiency (0.75).